Types of Water Purifiers & Different Purification Methods

The water nowadays contains a lot of contaminants due to pollution in the environment. This can be dangerous to human health. However, with the advancement of technology there is no problem to which there hasn’t come any solution. The water purifiers play a very important role in this scenario. These purifiers have been designed with different purification methods. Firstly, let us know what are the different types of water purification methods?

Different Types of Water Purification Methods

Water purification is the must when it comes to any living organisms. The harmful contaminants in the water may lead to severe water-borne diseases and also to death. However, the purification can be done in different ways. So, let us look at the possible methods of water purification.

Membrane Technology

Membrane Technology

Reverse Osmosis (RO)

Reverse Osmosis is a very popular water purification method which uses the membrane technology. It removes dissolved salts, impurities and germs from water. The semipermeable membrane has fine pores which allows only the water to pass through it leaving behind harmful chemicals, dissolved salts and microbes suspended in water.

reverse osmosis

The RO water purification method alters the taste of water. RO technology is suitable for the hard water which has high TDS level.

Ultra-Filtration (UF)

Ultra-filtration purification method also uses membrane technology but has a membrane with bigger pores. It removes all microscopic solid particles in the water failing to remove dissolved solids and salts.


UF purification is as good as RO water purification technology. However, it is suitable for not very hard water and has a very low TDS.

Ultra-Violet (UV)

Ultra-Violet purification aka e-boiling method uses ultra-violet light to kill germs, bacteria, cysts, etc. It is simple and effective process which removes 99.99% harmful organisms in the water. A tiny mercury lamp in the produces a short wave of UV radiation which irradiates the water and penetrates the cells of bacteria and viruses. This process destroys their ability to re-produce due to which microbes fail to multiply and they eventually die.


The dead bodies of germs in this process still remain in water which needs separate filters to be removed physically. This process is more effective with other forms of filtration such as Reverse Osmosis or Activated Carbon filters.



Activated Carbon

Activated Carbon chemically bonds with the water that enters into the system. It helps in removing the chlorine which improves the taste and odor. Due to elimination of organic compounds like humic and fulvic acid, the chlorine in the water does not react with the acids in the water and form trihalomethanes (THMs). These THMs are carcinogenic.

However, activated carbons are not capable of removing all the contaminants from the water.  For instance, sodium, nitrates, microbes and fluorides.

Carbon Block

The Carbon Block filters are block-shaped filters that are composed of crushed carbon particles. These are more effective than other carbon-based filters due to larger surface area. There is direct relation between the rate at which water flows through these filters and their level of effectiveness.

Of all types of block carbon filters, Fibredyne carbon block filters have greater sediment holding capacity.

Granulated Carbon

Granulated carbon as its name suggests uses small grains of carbon to filter your water. Their small surface makes them slightly less effective than their block-shaped counterparts. Here also, the effectiveness of granulated carbon block filter is highly influenced by the rate at which water flows.




Deionization facilitates ion exchange in the water to remove salts and other electrically charged ions. If a contaminant lacks an electrical charge, it will be removed by these filters. Viruses and bacteria will not be removed by these filters.

Ion Exchange

Ion exchange is a technology which uses resin to replace harmful ions with one which are less harmful. This method of purification is used to soften the water since it has ability to replace calcium and magnesium with sodium. However, the resin must be regularly recharged with harmless replacement ions, for the filter to work for a longer duration.

Water Softeners

Water softeners use ion exchange technology to reduce the amount of calcium or magnesium in the water. These harmful elements are replaced with sodium. Water purified with this method contains high level of sodium and thus if you cannot consume more amount of salt, you should avoid softened water. Also, this water shall not be useful for gardening.




Distillation is one of the methods which vaporizes water by heating it to exceptionally high temperatures. The vapor is then condensed back into the drinkable water. This process removes minerals, micro-organisms, and chemicals that have a high boiling point. This process cannot remove chlorine and many other organic chemicals.


Filtration is a traditional method of water purification. It can be done by different ways like using a clay vessel with suitable pore size, through a cloth and through a winnowing sieve. These filtration methods worked without electricity and removed all impurities, insects, debris etc. from the water.

It does not eliminate all minerals and salts thus making the water healthy and safe for consumption. It is one of the economical methods of purification.


Chlorine is the chemical that kills germs, parasites and other diseases causing organisms in the water from different sources like municipal water or tap water. Water can be purified using chlorine tablets or liquid chlorine. Chlorine removes all the bacteria leaving the water clean and safe for consumption. Also, this is quiet cheap and effective way for water purification.

These are the different methods of water purification. They are useful in providing us with safe and healthy drinking water. But, wouldn’t it be great if you have a water purifier in your house which performs multiple water purification methods? Yes, definitely it would be. But to decide on which is the best water purifier for home in India, one needs to know the types of water purifier. So, let us get started with knowing them.

Types of Water Purifiers

On the basis of various water purification methods, different water purifiers have been designed for homes in India. Let us go through the list of types of water purifiers available in India.

1. UF (Ultra-Filtration) Water Purifier2. UV (Ultra-Violet) Water Purifier3. RO (Reverse Osmosis) Water Purifier4. Activated Carbon Water Purifier5. Sediment Filters

UF (Ultra-Filtration) Water Purifier

UF or Ultra-Filtration does not use electricity and any chemicals to purify the water. It uses hollow fibers of a membrane made of a thin layer of material capable of separating water and other particles in water. The UF purifiers are quiet similar to RO purifiers, but the RO can block very minute particles and UF on the other hand can block only larger particles.

UF is ideal for water with low TDS level. It does not remove chemicals; it simply blocks germs like bacteria and viruses. It is not suitable for hard water purification. Thus, the hard water still remains hard water even after purification.

UV (Ultra-Violet) Water Purifier

UV or Ultra-Violet water purifier does not use any chemical during purification process. In this purifier, water has to pass through a small UV lamp fitted in the filter. This water is exposed to UV light which kills all water-borne diseases causing microorganisms, pathogens and cysts. The water is then safe for consumption.

However, in the UV water purifiers the dead bodies of the microorganisms stay in water and are not removed. But, the water is still safe for consumption. UV purifiers are suitable for low level TDS water and are incapable of purifying hard water.

These purifiers have high purification rate compared to RO, UF and activated carbon. It does not alter the taste of water. Also, it does not remove chemicals like fluoride, arsenic, chlorine, etc.

RO (Reverse Osmosis) Water Purifier

The RO water purifiers are capable of removing metal particles like arsenic, fluoride, lead, chlorine, nitrates and sulfates. It uses semi-permeable membrane to purify water. The water pump in the RO water filter pressurizes the raw hard water to pass through the RO membrane which removes all the mentioned metal particles.

The RO water purifier also changes the taste and odor of water giving you safe and healthy water for consumption. These purifiers are commonly available in India. They are suitable for water from different sources like tap water, municipal water, borewell, etc. It is a must in the region where TDS level is greater than 200.

They come in different types like wall-mounted or counter-top RO water purifier and Under-sink or Under-Counter RO water purifier. No wonder, RO water purifier gives out plenty of waste water which should be optimally used. There are various uses of waste water from RO purifier.

Activated Carbon Water Purifier

Activated Carbon is most suitable for water borne disease causing pesticides and heavy metals. It is most effective in removing chlorine from water. It is made of carbon which is divided into small pieces. It removes the chemicals from the water which makes is taste and smell bad.activated carbon filters

The activated carbon improves RO membrane life by blocking chlorine and other particles which are damaging RO membrane. It is not suitable for hard water, since the hardness of water remains same even after filtration. One needs to actively use such filter to avoid growth of microorganisms like bacteria and viruses on activated carbon surface.

Sediment Filters

This water purifier is used along with other purification technologies like RO, UV. This filter basically catches unwanted dust or mud particles in the water. The sediments collected in this filter may be rust flakes of metal pipes, mud particles or sand. It also removes turbidity of water.sediment filters

In India, most of the sediment filters are made of cotton, polyester fibers. Sediment filters are placed before the inlet of any other water purifier. The water outlet of sediment filter is connected to RO or UV water purifier as the inlet.

These are the few types of water purifiers available in India. However, many of the water purifiers have the technology of all the types of purifiers inbuilt in a single product. This helps in multi-stage purification of the water which provides you with safe and healthy water for consumption.

Concluding Thoughts on Types Of Water Purifiers

The different types of water purifiers enables you to select the most suitable water purifier for your home. Also, we have made you aware of many different methods of purification. Not just that there are several factors to consider to buy the best water purifier. One needs to go through them before making the best buy.

For any suggestions and improvements on types and best water purifiers in India write to us in comments section below.

2 Comments on “Types of Water Purifiers & Different Purification Methods”

    1. You should take care of a few prime factors you can work with before buying your Water Purifier. A few factors that would help you take a decision would include the quality of water available at your home and TDS (Total Dissolved Salts), a proper water pressure of the water supply, storage capacity required for you based on the number of people in your family, and few other important factors.
      If the TDS levels in your water supply is less than 200, you can go with UV/UF technology , and if it is more than 200, we recommend RO water purifier.
      You can check out the best water purifiers on our site as well if you need assistance.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.